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  • Фридрих Ницше. Так говорил Заратустра.
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  • Ксенофонт. Анабасис.
  • Платон. Государство.
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  • Карл Расселл. Ружья, мушкеты и пистолеты Нового Света. Огнестрельное оружие XVII-XIX веков.



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Tw.png Китайская Республика[править]

Список китайского вооружения во Второй мировой войне.

Этот список охватывает вооружение: национальной революционной армии и её различных командиров, коллаборационийчкой китайской армии, манджурской имперской армии, а также коммунистических повтанцев.

  1. Мечи и штыки: Дао, Miaodao, Штык-нож HY1935, Копьё Qiang, Shin guntō (использовали про-японские офицеры), Штык Type 30 (использовали про-японские войска).
  2. Пистолеты
  • Mauser C96 (7,63×25mm, .45 ACP) - Был прозван "Коробчатая пушка" (Box Cannon (盒子炮)). Самый распространенный и популярный пистолет на раннем этапе становления республики. Импортировался из Германии и Испании (Astra 900 и MM31), но большинство было проищведено на местных арсеналах, крупнейшие из которых находились в Hanyang, Shanghai, Gongxian, Taku and Shanxi. Часто используется со съемным плечевым прикладом. Пистолет был под патрон 7,63×25 мм, но в арсенале в Shanxi производился под патрон .45 ACP под названием "Type 17".
  • FN 1900 (.32 ACP) - очень популярный пистолет, прозванный Lu Zi (撸子) или 8 Bangs (八音子) in the North and Bent Ruler (曲尺) in the South. Изначально проищводился в Белтгии, но большинство копий и модификации производилось в Китае, most significantly in the arsenals in Jinling and Shanghai. Делались с 6 или 8-дюймовыме стволом, the latter having a slot for a detachable shoulder stock.
  • Ruby (.32 ACP) - Originally made in Spain, but produced in China by the Hanyang Arsenal, as well as smaller shops.
  • Colt M1903 (.32 ACP) - Imported commercially from the United States. Called the Horse Brand Logo (馬牌撸子) after the old Colt rampant horse logo.
  • FN 1910/22 (.32 ACP) - Imported from Belgium and nicknamed the Floral Mouth Pistol (花口撸子) due to its serrated muzzle ring.
  • Mauser 1914 (.32 ACP) - Imported from the Germany. Called the Kick Mouth Open (张嘴蹬) due to the hold-open design when the gun was empty "waiting" like an "open mouth".
  • Astra 400 (9mm Largo) - Rare pistol imported from Spain and used the uncommon (especially in China) 9mm Largo caliber.
  • Hi-Power (9×19mm) - Produced by the John Inglis Company in Canada for China through the Mutual Aid Board in 1943. Originally intended to make 180,000, only 4,000 were delivered to Karachi, India before the end of the war, with supply problems over "the Hump" making it hard for them to reach the Chinese Y Force. Production was cancelled in 1944, but restarted in late 1945, with 40,000 being used in the Civil War after World War II.
  • Colt M1911A1 (.45 ACP) - Supplied to SACO guerrilla units and operatives early in the war, and to the X Force in Burma later on. Nicknamed the Big Eye Pistol (大眼撸子) due to the large caliber.
  • Colt M1917 (.45 ACP) - Supplied to SACO guerrilla units and operatives.
  • S&W Regulation Police (.32 S&W Long) - Smith & Wesson revolvers in this caliber, copies of the S&W Regulation Police, was produced in the 44th Arsenal located in Guizhou during slack time, starting 1942, often with a detachable shoulder stock.
  • Nambu Type 14, North China Type 19 (8mm Nambu) - The Type 14 was captured from the Imperial Japanese Army and nicknamed the Turtle Shell Pistol (王八盒子) or Chicken Thigh Pistol (鸡腿撸子). It was also supplied to Manchukuo and the Collaborationist Chinese Army, who also produced a very small amount of the Type 19, a copy of the Type 14.
  1. Пистолеты-пулемёты и автоматические пистолеты
  • Bergmann (7.63x25mm, 7.65×21mm) - The Bergmann gun was the most common SMG in China at the time and called the Flower Mouth Machine-gun (花机关). SIG in Switzerland produced the originally German weapon under license as the "SIG Bergmann 1920" and exported it to China after World War I. Chinese arsenals in Jinling and Shanghai started producing them in 7.65mm in 1926. Other arsenals, such as Taku and Hanyang, started making them in 7.63mm. Shenyang, Shanxi and Beiyang arsenals also produced the weapon. Some weapons were made with the magazine facing down, instead of to the side.
  • Thompson (.45 ACP, 7.63x25mm) - The M1921 was commercially imported from the United States and thereafter locally produced in China since the 1920s. Several tens of thousands were made in the arsenals of Shanxi, Taiyuan and Sichuan. ~4,700 guns were also made in 7.63mm in the 21st Arms Weapons Depot. Later in the war, M1928A1 wartime models were supplied to the X Force in Burma, with some also going to the Y Force, by the United States. The M1 was also supplied to SACO units.
  • Automatic Mauser C96 (7.63x25mm) - The fully automatic version of the common Mauser C96 was originally invented and imported from Spain (Astra 902, Super Azul and MM31). They were also widely imported from Germany (M712 Schnellfeuer). Chinese made copies also existed. A Chinese technique of firing the gun was to hold the pistol sideways, as the high recoil due to the very high rate of fire would push the gun in a sweeping motion to the side instead of upwards.
  • United Defense M42 (9×19mm) - Supplied to SACO guerrilla units and operatives.
  1. Винтовки
  • Hanyang 88 (7.92×57mm) - The most common Chinese rifle in the war and was based on the German Gewehr 88 originally used by the New Armies of the Qing dynasty (Several Gewehr 88's also found their way to China after World War I and even its predecessor, the Gewehr 71/84, was still in very limited use.). Around 1,000,000 were produced in several Chinese arsenals before production ceased in 1944. There also existed a more uncommon carbine version.
  • Chiang Kai-Shek rifle, Standardmodell, Karabiner 98k (7.92×57mm) - In the Chinese National Armament Standards Conference of 1932 it was decided that the Mauser Standardmodell was to be the standard issue rifle of China. It started being imported from Germany in 1934 and production in Chinese arsenals also began in 1935, first under the name "Type 24 Rifle", but was soon renamed to the "Chiang Kai-Shek rifle" after the Generalissimo. It would remain the standard service rifle throughout the war, but would never outproduce the Hanyang 88, with the total number of Chinese produced Chiang Kai-Shek rifles made between 1935 and 1945 being ~360,000. In 1935, Germany adopted a modified Standardmodell as their service rifle under the designation Karabiner 98k, continued Chinese imports between 1938 and 1939 would consist of some 100,000 examples of this rifle.
  • FN Model 1924, FN Model 1930 (7.92×57mm) - After World War I, German arms exports were banned under the Treaty of Versailles, and weapons companies of other countries stepped in to fill the gap. A very large amount of Belgian M1924 rifles and M1930 carbines from FN were sold to China. Chinese arsenals also produced copies, such as the "Type 21 Carbine" from Guangdong or the "Type 77 Rifle" (named after the date of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident) from Zhejiang.
  • ZB vz. 98/22 (7.92×57mm) - After World War I, German arms exports were banned under the Treaty of Versailles, and weapons companies of other countries stepped in to fill the gap. Czechoslovak Brno produced and exported a modified version of the German Gewehr 98. Records show around 200,000 were shipped to China between 1927 and 1939.
  • ZB vz. 24 (7.92×57mm) - Right after the ZB vz. 98/22, Brno started producing the shorter ZB vz. 24. Around 100,000 were imported by the Central Government of China between 1937 and 1938, and several tens of thousands more by provincial governors.
  • Mosin–Nagant 1891, Mosin–Nagant 1891/30 (7.62×54mmR) - Called the Three-Line Repeater (三线步枪), due to the old Russian measurement of the caliber, or Water Repeater (水连珠), believed to be due to Chinese first encountering the rifle from Russian Naval Infantry.[56] Many Mosin-Nagant 1891 rifles were supplied during the Sino-Soviet cooperation in the 1920s and to the troops of the pro-Soviet Sheng Shicai. The Soviet Aid Program early in the war also supplied China with 50,000 Mosin-Nagant 1891/30 rifles, which were used by second line and garrison troops due to the caliber difference.
  • Carcano 1891 (6.5×52mm) - The Carcano rifle was first imported from Italy in 1920, with an order of 40,000. In 1922, a further 14,000 rifles were purchased. In 1924, a further 40,000 rifles were obtained. Japanese records show these rifles being captured in Fujian. In 1941, Japan sold 15,000 of these captured weapons to the collaborationist Nanjing Army.
  • M1917 Enfield (.30-06) - Common Chinese Lend-Lease rifle. Most of the X Force in Burma were carrying this rifle. At first the rifles were cut-down to a shorter length, to better suit the shorter Chinese soldiers, but later issued rifles were of normal length.
  • M1903A3 Springfield (.30-06) - The M1903A3 Springfield was also commonly issued to soldiers of the X Force. It was also used by Chinese commandos in 1945, provided by the OSS.
  • M1 Carbine (.30 Carbine) - Milton E. Miles of SACO considered the light-weight M1 Carbine to be more suitable to the Chinese soldiers than the bigger Mauser rifles, therefore, most SACO units from 1943 on were issued with this semi-automatic weapon. It was also used by the X Force in Burma.
  • Lee-Enfield No.4 Mk I* (.303 British) - The North American produced version of the Lee-Enfield was issued to the X Force while they were training in India. The rifles were part of the Lend-Lease program and marked as US property. Once American rifles started being issued, the Lee-Enfields were kept as training weapons and for guard duty. 40,000 were supplied from 1942 onward.
  • Mauser 1907, Mauser Type 1, Mauser Type 4 (6.8×57mm, 7.92×57mm) - The Type 1 was a Chinese produced version of a pattern of imported German rifle (Mauser 1907) from the end of the Qing dynasty. Originally chambered in 6.8x57mm, but changed to 7.92x57mm with the new designation Type 4 (usually just called the "Type 1 7.9mm"), in 1915. The Type 4 were the older Chinese standard rifles and common during the Warlord era. In World War II, they were outdated, but still in use by more poorly equipped units.
  • Liao Type 13 (7.92×57mm, 6.5×50mmSR) - A hybrid between Arisaka and Mauser 4 produced in the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo and before. Around 140,000 are estimated to have been produced in total. Most of the weapons are using the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge, but some have turned up chambered in 6.5×50mmSR Arisaka.
  • Arisaka Type 30, Arisaka Type 38 (6.5×50mmSR) - While the Japanese Arisaka rifle was supplied to collaborationist units, particularly the Manchukuo Imperial Army and used as captured weapons by Allied ones, China had also imported and produced (in Shanxi) Type 30 and 38 Rifles since before the war. Up to 1917, ~200,000 Type 38 and 150,000 Type 30 rifles had also been imported. The Type 38 was called 38 Big Cover (三八大盖), by the Chinese. Copies of the Type 30 and 38, in 7.92×57mm and 6.5×50mmSR respectively, both named "Type 19", were also made in the collaborationist China.
  • Type 81 Short Rifle (7.92×57mm) - A short rifle which included a mixture of features from rifles such as the Hanyang 88, vz. 24 and Japanese Arisaka carbine, including a foldable bayonet. They were produced by the Chinese communists, first in the Jin Ji Yu Operating Base Arsenal in September 1940 before prints and templates were distributed to other arsenals. Around 8,700 were made in total and the model was the largest number produced in the communist arsenals during the war.
  • Gewehr 98 (7.92×57mm) - Some surplus weapons from various countries in possession of the Gewehr 98 after World War I sold these off internationally, with some ending up in the arms of Chinese warlords.
  • Karabinek wz. 1929 (7.92×57mm) The Polish Karabinek wz. 1929 were exported to China. It is estimated this was only a small amount.
  • Mannlicher M1886, Mannlicher M1888 (8×52mmR) - Many were imported very long before World War II, but were still used by some rear-line units.
  • ZH-29 (7.92×57mm) - 210 examples of this weapon were purchased in 1930 and 1931 for Northeast China. They were probably captured in the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
  • Murata Type 13 (11×60mmR) - Local defense militias in Manchukuo were issued obsolete weapons such as these.
  1. Гранаты и гранатомёты
  • Chinese Stielhandgranate - China designed and produced grenades based on the German type, which was the main type during the war. Both several arsenals and civilian workshops produced hundreds of thousands each month. Variations existed, but followed the same basic principle: a wooden handle with a round or cylindrical head and a slow burning fuse. The charge was a mixture of TNT and nitride potassium and were generally weaker than their German counterpart. In 1939, a more powerful design with a smaller handle and much more compressed explosive load became the new standard type in all arsenals. Soldiers often bundled grenades together to blast open fortifications. Another tactic was to tie a grenade to a long bamboo stick, for example to stick up over a wall or into a window.
  • Various Grenades - Several other types of simple timed or impact grenades were also made in various machine shops. Examples are copies of the Mills bomb and an impact grenade produced in Jinling Arsenal which had a long "tail" made of hemp to make it easier to throw, nicknamed the "Ponytail Grenade". Local production of grenades and mines by Communist soldiers were important to their guerrilla tactics.
  • Type 23 Grenade - The Type 23 Grenade was a simple cast metal grenade adopted in 1934 which had the function to be easily used as a trap. Many of these grenades were also captured by the Japanese and used in the Pacific War, where US reports believed them to be a new Japanese type.
  • Type 27 Grenade Discharger - The Type 27 was a common 50mm grenade launcher, a simplified version based on the Japanese Type 89 (which proved too complicated to produce and for soldiers to use). The launcher was designed and tested in 1938, with production beginning in January 1939. Some modifications were introduced in 1940 and 1941, such as making the calibration and base plate thicker and changing the shape of the range adjustment wheel. It had a range of 50-250 meters with a kill zone of 20 meters in diameter. The grenade had a delay fuse of 7.5-8 seconds after being launched. The projectile (Type 27 Grenade) were copies of the Japanese Type 91 grenade, which were used with the Type 89. Therefore, captured enemy ammunition could be used as well. 40,900 were produced, with 1,500,000 grenades. The weapon could be carried in a large leather holster.
  • Type 28 Rifle Grenade - The Type 28 was a rifle grenade launcher shaped like a long cylinder which would be attached to front of a Mauser type or Hanyang 88 rifle. It could then fire a Type 28 Rifle grenade (both explosive and smoke types) with the use of a special blank cartridge. The Type 28 rifle grenade system was designed in February 1939 and adopted the same year, going intro production by June. It had a range of 50-250 meters and had a kill zone 10 meters in diameter. The Type 28 grenade was similar to the regular "Stielhandgranate" types, and could be thrown by hand. It had a fuse of 6.5 seconds and was more powerful than regular grenades. Monthly production was 80,000 grenades and 2,000 launchers.
  1. Огнеметы
  • M1A1 Flamethrower - The X Force and Y Force in Burma and later southern China were supplied with these flamethrowers in 1944 and 1945.
  1. Пулеметы
  • ZB vz. 26 (7.92×57mm) - Between 1927 and 1939 Brno exported around 30,000 ZB-26 machine guns to China. Chinese production started in 1927, originally in Taku, but with many other arsenals soon following suit. It was the standard light machine gun since 1934 and the most common through the whole war, with many arsenals each producing several hundred weapons per month. The gun never received its own designation in China, but was always simply referred to as the "Czech Light Machine-gun".
  • FN Model 1930, FN Model D (7.92×57mm) - Belgian versions of the Browning Automatic Rifle made by FN were imported to China. Over 9,000 had been imported by the time the war broke out, with an additional 8,000 being purchased after that.
  • Madsen gun (7.92×57mm) - The Danish Madsen gun was used with a bipod or tripod and was both imported and locally produced in small scale since 1909. The Madsen gun was considered to replace the ZB vz. 26 after Brno had turned down the licensing rights for production in China. But after a full set of tools, jigs and drawings were lost in a Japanese air raid in 1940, the Ordnance Office turned back to ZB vz. 26 production. 438 were imported before the war and 3,300 during it.
  • Neuhausen KE-7 (7.92×57mm) - China purchased over 3,000 KE-7's from Switzerland between 1928 and 1939, including 44,500 magazines. An arsenal in Chonqing, Sichuan produced an additional 6,000 copies between 1934 and 1936.
  • Degtyaryov DP (7.62×54mmR) - 5,600 Soviet Degtyaryov DP machine guns were supplied to China in the Soviet Aid Program starting 1938.
  • Maxim–Tokarev (7.62×54mmR) - The predecessor of the Degtyaryov was the Maxim-Tokarev 1925 machine gun. Of the total 2,450 produced, 1,400 were supplied to China between 1938 and 1939, with the rest going to the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War.
  • Hotchkiss 1922 (7.92×57mm) - China started buying this French weapon in 1931 and by the time the war started in 1937 2,620 guns had been imported. A further 1,400 guns were ordered, with at least 925 confirmed deliveries by 1939.
  • Lewis gun (.303 British) - At least 3,000 Lewis guns and 15,000,000 rounds of ammunition were purchased around 1930.
  • Lahti-Saloranta M/26 (7.92×57mm) - Originally chambered in the Finnish 7.62×53mmR, the export version of this weapon to its only buyer: China, was chambered in 7.92×57mm Mauser. A contract was originally signed for 30,000 guns, but only 800 were delivered in 1938.
  • Bren gun (.303 British, 7.92×57mm) - Over 18,000 Canadian John Inglis Company Bren Mk. I guns in .303 British were supplied to China through the Lend-Lease program. However, supply problems over "the Hump" led to only 1,117 having been issued to units in China by early 1945. So the primary user became the X Force in Burma, with the Y Force receiving more later on. In October 1943, the John Inglis Company started producing Bren guns in 7.92×57mm Mauser for the Chinese. By the end of World War II, 18,900 had been shipped and 13,800 had been delivered to China by July 1945. Several thousands more would be delivered and used in the Chinese Civil War in the following years.
  • Nambu Type 11 (6.5×50mmSR) - Captured Japanese Type 11 machine guns were used, and they were supplied to the Manchukuo Imperial Army as well as other collaborators. A small number of Chinese copies, the "Type 17" in the same caliber, were produced before the war.
  • Type 24 Maxim (7.92×57mm) - Based on the commercial version of the German MG 08, the MG 09, the Type 24 was a modified and upgraded standardized version of previous small-scale productions of German Maxim guns. It became the most common heavy machine gun in the war, produced in multiple arsenals. In addition to the regular belt, there existed special drum magazines (as well as tripods and sights) for anti-aircraft use. The Type 24 was one of the latest adopted Maxim type guns in the world and could incorporate a lot of experience and features from previous models from around the world. It was a very well made and feature rich weapon.
  • Type Triple-Ten, M1917 Browning (7.92×57mm, .30-06) - Type Triple-Ten was a Chinese copy of the M1917 Browning in 7.92×57mm Mauser. Production started on 10 October 1921 (the 10th year of the republic), i.e. 10-10-10, and the weapon was thus named "Type Triple-Ten". The gun was not very stable and had poor performance, attempts to obtain drawings from the United States or Belgium to improve it were without success. Production shifted to the Type 24 Maxim instead, but ~10,000 Triple-Tens were still made in total. Later in the war, real M1917 Browning's would be supplied to the X Force, chambered in .30-06.
  • Hotchkiss 1914 (7.92×57mm) - Around 2,800 guns were imported from France in the 1930s, all in 7.92×57mm Mauser, further deliveries were stopped due to the German invasion of France in 1940. It was a common model during the war.
  • Maxim 1910 (7.62×54mmR) - The Soviet Aid Program supplied China with 1,300 Maxim guns with wheeled "Sokolov" mounts.
  • ZB vz. 37 (7.92×57mm) - 1,000 machine guns of this type was ordered from Czechoslovakia in 1937, 850 arrived between 1938 and 1939, before the German annexation.
  • M1919 Browning (.30-06) - M1919A4 Browning guns were used by the X Force and M1919A6 Browning's were later supplied by the OSS to American trained Chinese commandos in 1945.
  • Type 3 machine gun (6.5×50mmSR) - This machine gun was used by the Manchukuo Imperial Army and by Collaborationist Chinese Armies.
  1. Пехотное противотанковое оружие
  • Boys AT rifle Mk. I* (.55 Boys) - Canadian Boys anti-tank rifles were used by the Y Force in 1944 and 1945.
  • M1A1 Bazooka (M6A1 HEAT Rocket) - The 60mm M1A1 "Bazooka" rocket launcher was first supplied to SACO units in 1943, they were then supplied to the X Force and Y Force in 1944-1945. A total of ~1,000 Bazookas were in Chinese hands by the end of the war.
  1. Танковое, авиационное и ПВО пулеметы
  • Vickers .50 Type-D
  • Hotchkiss M1929 machine gun both single- and twin-barrel versions
  • Type 92 aircraft gun (captured)
  • Type 89 Lewis aircraft gun (captured)?
  • Breda-SAFAT light machinegun M1926 (used on L3/33 and L3/35)
  • Degtyarev M-1928 (DT and DA versions)
  • Maxim PV-1 aircraft gun
  • Vickers Class "E" aircraft machine gun (70)
  • Vickers Class "F" aircraft machine gun (9)
  • Colt–Browning MG40 aircraft machine gun (1038 delivered)
  • FN Browning Modèle 1932 aircraft machine gun
  • Browning M-2 fixed and flexible aircraft machine gun (460 delivered)
  • MG-13 light machine gun (for German armored vehicles, 100 delivered)
  • Solothurn Model T-6-220 aircraft machine gun (captured Japanese copies)
  • Browning M-1919A5 armor machine gun (1640 delivered)
  1. Пехотные минометы
  • 37mm MAM Guerilla mortar
China	41mm-50mm	Various locally built light mortars
Japan	50mm	Type 10 grenade discharger	captured from Japanese
Japan	50mm	Type 89 grenade discharger	captured from Japanese
France	60mm	Brandt Mle 1935
United States	60mm	M2 mortar	from 1942 onward, local copy with longer barrel produced as Type 31
China	75mm	Hanyang Arsenal mortar
China	75mm	Taiyuan Arsenal mortar
China	75mm	Type 15 mortar	Produced at Hanyang Arsenal
China	79mm	82mm mortar [sic]	Stokes-type mortar, produced at Shandong arsenal
China	80mm	Type 11 mortar	Produced at Shenyang arsenal
France	81mm	Brandt Mle 27/31	French and Austrian versions
United States	81mm	M1 mortar	from 1942
China	82mm	Type 13 and Type 15 trench mortars	Produced at Shenyang arsenal
China	82mm	Taiyuan Arsenal mortar		[143]
China	82mm	Jiangnan arsenal mortar		[143]
China	82mm	Type 20 mortar	copy of the 81mm Brandt mortar produced at Jinling arsenal	[143]
China	84mm	Hanyang Arsenal mortar	produced from 1925	[142]
Japan	90mm	Type 94 Infantry Mortar	few captured from Japanese	[citation needed]
Japan	90mm	Type 97 Infantry Mortar	some captured from Japanese	[citation needed]
United States	107mm	M2 4.2 inch mortar	received from US from 1943 onward	[147]
China	150mm	Type 29 mortar		[148]
United Kingdom	152.4mm	Newton 6-inch Mortar	used by some local warlords	[citation needed]
China	240mm	infantry mortar	likely single unique unit to fire captured Japanese ammunition	[citation needed]

Field and mountain artillery Country Weapon name Observation References

Japan	Type 11 37 mm infantry gun	supplied to pro-Japanese forces or captured	[149][150]
Italy	Cannone da 47/32 M35		[151]
China	53mm Gelusen	legacy Hotchkiss gun
China	57mm Gelusen Guo
China	57mm Lu
China	70mm Gai Liang	copy of Japanese Type 92 Battalion Gun or 37/70mm Skoda gun?
France	Canon de 75 modèle 1897	limited service	[152]
Germany	7.5 cm Krupp L/29	actually a L/30 gun	[153][154]
Japan	75mm Type 38 field gun	supplied to pro-Japanese forces	[149]
Japan	Type 41 75 mm mountain gun	supplied to pro-Japanese forces	[149]
Austria-Hungary	7.5 cm Model 1911 field gun		[149]
Italy	75mm M1911 field gun		[154]
Austria-Hungary	7.5 cm Krupp Model 1913 mountain gun		[149]
Germany	7.5 cm Model 1914 mountain gun		[149]
China	75mm Type 13 Liao	copy of the Japanese Type 38 75 mm field gun	[citation needed]
China	75mm Type 18 Liao		[citation needed]
China	75mm Type 12 Jin or Type 12 infantry gun	copy of Krupp 7.5 cm Mountain Gun Model 1904, developed for warlord Yan Xishan	[citation needed]
China	75mm Type 13, Type 14 and Type 17	copies of the Japanese Type 41 75 mm mountain gun	[155]
China	75mm Type 46 Jin	copy of Type 94 75 mm Mountain Gun	[citation needed]
Sweden	Bofors 75 mm Mountain Gun	bought in large quantities	[156]
United States	75mm Pack Howitzer M1	supplied during Burma campaign	[157]
Soviet Union	76 mm divisional gun M1902/30		[158]
Germany	7.7 cm FK 16	limited service	[152]
China	77mm Type 14 Liao	copy of 8 cm FK M 18	[citation needed]
China	Type 41 77.7mm Field Gun	Produced in China	[citation needed]
United Kingdom	QF 18-pounder gun Mk IV and Mk V	limited service	[152]
China	88mm Type 18 Jin	copy of Gruson 9 cm C/1873 Kanone)	[citation needed]
China	88mm Type 18 Liao	copy of 9 cm L/31 Rheinmetall-Solothurn gun-howitzer	[citation needed]
Austria-Hungary	10.4 cm M.14 field gun		[149]
China	Type 14 10 cm Howitzer	(105mm) – developed for warlord Yan Xishan	[citation needed]
China	Type 14 10 cm Cannon	(105mm) Chinese design developed for warlord Yan Xishan, unrelated to Japanese Type 14 10 cm Cannon of accidentally the same name	[citation needed]
China	105mm Type 16 Jin	drilled-out version?	[citation needed]
United States	105 mm M2A1 howitzer		[159]
United Kingdom	114 mm QF 4.5-inch howitzer	captured in Singapore and supplied to pro-Japanese forces	[160]
China	Type 14 12 cm Howitzer	developed for warlord Yan Xishan, design related to Japanese Type 38 12 cm Howitzer	[citation needed]
Soviet Union	122 mm gun M1931 (A-19)		[citation needed]
Soviet Union	122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19)		[citation needed]
Germany	10.5 cm leFH 18		[citation needed]
Germany	15 cm sFH 18 L/32		[161]

Fortress, naval and coastal guns Country Weapon name Observation References

Germany	15 cm SK C/28	8 coastal guns supplied in 1936-1937	[162]
Germany	8.8 cm SK C/30 naval gun	dual AA and coastal gun	[163]

Anti-tank guns Country Weapon name Observation References

Denmark	20 mm Madsen F5 anti-tank gun		[164]
Soviet Union	37 mm Grusonwerk [de] and Rosenberg	1890s guns modified as anti-tank gun, received from the Soviet Union	[165]
Germany	Pak 36	including Pak 36 (L/45) and Rheinmetal Commercial (L/50)	[165]
Soviet Union	37 mm anti-tank gun M1930 (1-K)	Russian copy of Pak 36, small amount provided by USSR	[166][167]
China	Type 30 anti-tank gun	Chinese copy of Pak 36	[167]
Japan	Type 94 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun	captured from Japanese, common	[citation needed]
United States	37 mm Gun M3	supplied by US through Lend-Lease	[168]
Soviet Union	45 mm anti-tank gun M1932 (19-K)	unknown quantity supplied by USSR	[169]
Soviet Union	45 mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K)	unknown quantity supplied by USSR	[citation needed]
Italy	Cannone da 47/32 M35	few received from Italy	[citation needed]
Japan	Type 1 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun	few captured from Japanese	[citation needed]

Anti-aircraft weapons Chinese did not produce an AA-guns on their own, but used every foreign gun they can put their hands on. Madsen 20 mm cannons were especially widespread.[citation needed]

Country Weapon name Observation References

Denmark	Madsen 20 mm anti-aircraft cannon		[170]
Italy	Breda Model 33		[171]
Germany	Solothurn ST-5	120 delivered in 1937	[172][173]
France	25 mm Hotchkiss anti-aircraft gun		[174]
    • 3.7 cm Flak 18 - 60 доставлено в 1937
    • 75mm Type 88 AA gun - передано для про-японских войск
  • Танкетки
    • V-C-L Tankette Mk VI (24 было закуплено и доставлено из Британии между 1929 и 1930)
    • Renault UE (10 было закуплено и доставлено из Франции между 1936 и 1937)
    • CV-35 (101 было закуплено и доставлено из Италии между 1937 и 1938)
    • Type 94 tankette (18 к качестве поддержки переданы Collaborationist Chinese Army в 1941)
    • Universal Carrier (1 100 в пулеметном вариание и 400 с 3-дюймовым минометом переланы группе X Force в ходе Burma Campaign в 1943, но использовались толтко лля тренеровки и никогда не видили бой)
  • Танки
    • Renault FT (всего 36 ед, из них 14 закуплено между 1924 и 1925, а осталтные были захвачены Zhang Zuolin после France withdrew из Russian Civil War в 1920).
    • V-C-L Light Amphibious Tank (29 было закуплено и доставлено из Британии между 1933 и 1935 гг.)
    • Vickers Mark E Type B (20 было закуплено и доставлено из Британии между 1934 и 1936 гг.)
    • Panzer I (15 было закуплено и доставлено из Германии между 1936 и 1937 гг.)
    • Renault ZB (16 было закуплено и доставлено из Франции между 1936 и 1940)
    • T-26 (82 было направлено в качестве поддержки по советской програме помоци "Soviet Aid Program" в 1938)
    • BT-5 (4 было направлено в качестве поддержки по советской програме помоци "Soviet Aid Program" в 1938)
    • M3 Stuart (536 переправили как частт ленд-лейза США, но только 100 использовались в бирмской (Burma) кампании группой X Force межлу 1943 и 1945)
    • M4 Sherman (116 передано Британией группе X Force в бирмской (Burma) кампании в 1944)
  • Бронетехника
    • Leichter Panzerspähwagen (всего 15 ед между 1936 и 1937, большинство были Sd.Kfz. 222, два Sd.Kfz. 221 и один Sd.Kfz 260)
    • M3A1 White Scout (36 ленд-лейз США в 1941)
    • BA-10 (странным образом захвачено у Манджуро-го), BA-3/6 и BA-27 (куплено у KMT).
  • Корабли и лодки
    • Chinese cruiser Ning Hai
    • Chinese cruiser Ping Hai
    • Chinese cruiser Chao Ho
    • Chinese cruiser Ying Swei
    • Chinese cruiser Yat Sen (позже в ходе войны стал японским training ship "Atada")
    • Hai Chou - бывший британский sloop
    • Minelayer Huying
    • Gunboats
    • Yi Sheng
    • Hsien Ning
    • Chung Ning
    • Sui Ning
    • Chung Shan (warship) (Capt Sa Shih Chun)
    • Chu Tung
    • Yung Sheng
    • Chu Chien
    • Hu Fu
    • Chu Kuan
    • Yung Chi
    • Chiang Yuan
    • Yin Ning (Capt Yen Chuan Ching)
    • Hai Ning
    • 7 more unknown gunboats
    • Unknown boat class
    • Chung Shan
    • Chaing Chen
    • Min Sheng
  • Авиация
    Основная статья: ВВС Китайских Националистов (1937-1945)
    • Aichi AB-3 – 1 закуплен в Японии и 1 копия построена в Китае.
    • Chu X-PO – только прототип.
    • Breda Ba.27 – итальянский импорт.
    • Fiat CR.32 – итальянский импорт.
    • Breguet 27 – 6 импортировано из Франции.
    • Gloster Gladiator
    • Henschel Hs 123 - 12 закуплен в Германии.
    • I-15bis – 29
    • I-152 – 252? (возможно среди них были I-15)
    • Polikarpov I-153 – 75
    • I-16 Model 10 – 132
    • I-16 Model 17 – 75
    • SB-2M-100A – 179
    • SB-2M-103 – 100
    • DB-3 – 24
    • TB-3 – 6
    • Tupolev SB – 13
    • Yakovlev UT-1 trainer – 13
    • A-12 Shrike
    • Northrop A-17
    • Vultee A-19
    • A-29 Hudson
    • Martin B-10
    • C-19 Alpha
    • Beechcraft Staggerwing C-43
    • Beechcraft Model 17 Staggerwing ** D-17 medevac (10 получено)
    • Beechcraft Model 18 C-45
    • Curtiss C-46 Commando
    • Northrop Gamma 2E
    • Curtiss BF2C Goshawk (Curtiss Hawk III) (Models 67 and 68)
    • Curtiss F11C Goshawk
    • Curtiss-Wright CW-21 – 6 в строю, 27 несобранных комплекта
    • Boeing P-12
    • Boeing P-26 Peashooter (Model 281) – 11 закуплены в США
    • Curtiss P-36 Hawk – лицензионо производился как Hawk 75A-5 и Mohawk IV (8 построено)
    • Lockheed P-38 Lightning
    • Curtiss P-40 Warhawk
    • Republic P-43 Lancer
    • North American P-51 Mustang
    • Vultee P-66 Vanguard
    • North American T-6 Texan trainer (20 получено)
    • Beechcraft Model 18, trainer модифицированы в AT-7 (8 получено)
    • Cessna AT-17 Bobcat trainer (15 получено)
    • Boeing-Stearman Model 75, trainer модифицированы в PT-17 (150 получено)
    • Fairchild PT-19 trainer (127 получено)
    • Ryan PT-22 Recruit trainer (70 получено)
    • Vultee BT-13 Valiant trainer (30 получено)

Армянская конница[править]

Армянская тяжёлая конница (Айрудзи): Нахарарская конница, армянский всадник, конный лучник

Author: Smbat Minasyan

С древних времен в Армению выходила "Азатавреарская" конница, которая состояла из элиты армянских племен, позже из элиты армянского народа. Кавалерия "азатавреар" была основной частью двора армянских царей. Позже, в средневековье, "Азатавреарская" кавалерия, или армянская тяжелая кавалерия, собиралась из дворян (младших сыновей армянских владык) и называлась "АЙРУДЗИ" (айр - человек и дзи - конь, всадник). В мирное время армянская конница была разделена на несколько небольших отрядов, которые взяли на себя роль охраны царя и его семьи, а также армянских владык. Часть армянской кавалерии патрулировала армянские границы под командованием армянского генерала (спарапета). Отряд армянской конницы, основной задачей которого была защита армянского царя и его семьи, в древности состоял из 6 000 тяжеловооруженных всадников, а в средневековье - из 3 000 всадников. В военное время численность Армянской кавалерии достигала от 10 000 до 20 000 всадников и даже выше. Кроме армянской тяжелой кавалерии была армянская легкая кавалерия, состоявшая в основном из всадников-лучников.

V. Chapot (1) писал: "то, что говорят об Армении, сбивает нас с толку. Как мог этот горный народ создать такую кавалерию, которая могла бы сравниться с всадниками мидян? Одно можно сказать наверняка-это то, что Армения ...был источником превосходных породистых лошадей. Люди в этой стране обнаружили, что лошади были не только экономическим ценны, но и могли использоваться в военных целях."

Когда в 428 году Армения потеряла независимость, армянская тяжелая кавалерия не была расформирована. Она использовалась соседними Армении царствами и империями, такими как Византия и Сасанидская Персия.

В Сасанидской Персии армянская кавалерия получила статус, аналогичный элитному "Саварану" персидской армии. Снаряжение армянской кавалерии действительно было похоже на снаряжение Саварана. Про-сасанидские армянские кавалерийские части сражались под знаменами Сасанидов и были допущены в царскую столицу Ктесифон. Армяне действительно были удостоены чести за свои заслуги. Например, генерал Смбат Багратуни был удостоен особой чести и внимания со стороны Хосрова II. В 619 году, в связи с его победой над турками, которые тогда жили в Центральной Азии, ему были даны подарки, такие как щедро украшенные одежды и командование рядом королевских гвардейцев. Хосров II также возвел его на третье место среди придворных дворян. Кроме того, просасанидские армяне поставляли превосходную легкую кавалерию и пехоту, которые отличались тем, что использовали пращи для отражения вражеской кавалерии и копья для ближнего боя.

References: 1) V. Chapot, La frontière de l'Euphrate de Pompée à la Conquète arabe, 1907, Paris


  • Межвоенный период
    • Советская милиция (1917-1919 гг.) — Винтовка Мосина, Револьвер Нагана, импортное оружие для РИА: Маузер C96, Gewehr 1888, Mannlicher m1895, Roth-Steyr M1907, Steyr M1912, изначально для гражданского рынка: Frommer Stop 1912, Browning M1900, Browning M1903, Browning M1910/14, Colt 1903, Mauser 1914, Dreyse M1907.
  • Вторая Мировая Война
    • Союзники
      • Dk.png Дания — датский Suomi m/41 (также экспорт для шведской полиции), ручной пулемёт Madsen m/22 и m/24, пулемёт Madsen MG39 (для подразделение "Викинг" и "Герман Гесе". Несколько трофеев было у советских партизан), Автопушка/тяжёлый пулемёт Madsen m/38 калибра 20 мм (основное противотанковое оружие датской армии).
      • Be.png Бельгия — бельгийский маузер 98, FN Model D, пистолет Лепаж.
      • Nl.png Нидерланды — Lewis, голландский Mannlicher, Винтовка Бьюман-Витали молель 1871/1888 (до 1942 г. в Ост-Голландии).
    • Ось
      • Казаки атамана Семенова (1939-1945 гг.) — СШ-36 (казаки и квантонская армия), Shanxai model 1900 pistol, cColt 1903, Colt 1902 (полиция шанхая), Тип 17 Шанси 17, Наганы, Браунинг пистолет, советские трофей, МТ, ДП, ДТ. Винтовки - Мосина, Арисака и пистолеты - Намбу тип 14 и тип 94.
      • Оружие Фольксштурма: Volkssturmgewehr model 45, Volkssturm 2, Volkssturm Mauser 98, Тренировочная винтовка Гитлерюген, Винтовка Лебеля, Винтовка Краг-Йоргенсен, MAS-36, Винтовка Schmidt-Rubin, Манлихер-Каркано модель 1938 г., MP-3008, MP-717(r) (Был запрещён к показу в музеях и выставках соцлагеря.), MG-08/15, MG-14, MG-81, MG-17, MG-131.
      • Bg.png Болгария (1939-1945 гг. и послевоенный период) — MP-28/2 + его штык, ZK-383, Suomi M/31, MG-08/15, Lewis, Винтовка Манлихер, Пулемёт Шварцлозе, MG-15, Breda M30, Пулемёт Максима (русский), Винтовка Мосина, Kar98K, MG-34.
    • Нейтралы
      • Ch.png Швейцария — MG 29, LMG 25, Шатолеро mle 1931, винтовка шмит-рубин молель 1889, пистолет-пулемет испано сюизо, ручной пулемет ZK7, люгер P08.
      • Se.png Швеция — шведский маузер 98, automaticgewehr (база будущего египт. Рашида), шведский суоми, карл густав модель 35 лмг (на базе BAR, 41-60 гг.), кулспрута (на базе браунинга, до 70х гг. швед. миротворцы на кипре), шведский латхи л35, М40 (шведский браунинг м1903).
      • Tr.png Турция —
  • Холодная Война
    • "Первая социалистическая война" (1979 г.) (Северный Вьетнам против Кампучии) — Карабин M1 с теплоскопом T3, Пистолет-пулемёт American-180 с ЛЦУ Spectra Фуксис M1975, Револьверы - Smith & Wesson Model 38/49 и Smith & Wesson Model 37 Airweight.
    • Операция "Вспышка ярости". Вторжения США на остров Гренада (25 октября 1983 года) — кубинские/гренадские Ан-2 и Ан-26.
    • Неизвестная победа ГРУ — AR-10 (100 ед. в Техас и 100 ед. в Голландию), M14 (вооружение Голландия и Рейнжеры Южного Вьетнама), L1A1 (на вооружение Голландии).

В разборе[править]

  • Османская империя (XVIII-XX вв.) — Офицерские замковые пистолеты, Пистолет Аль-Джазир, Оружие янычар - Пистолет совмещен с копьём, Пистолет со скрытым ножом, Пистолет с утяжелённой рукоятью, Ручная картечница. Двустольный бельгийский пистоле 1800 г. Кавалерийский карабин для стрельбы картечью, кавалерийский карабин с замком 1777 года. После воен. реформы - Steyr M1907, Steyr M1912, Mauser C96. На рукоятке пистолетов, что затыкались за пояс обозначали звания или должность в военизированных структурах.
  • Коллекция: Thopson M1928, Zastava M49, Винтовка Бомон Витали М 1871, панцерфауст 60, Автомат Фёдорова образца 1916 года, Пистолет Зингер образца 1925 года, Противотанковое ружье Морошека, Gewehr-42, Румынская версия автомата Калашникова, АК и Штурмгевер 44.
  • Первое боевое применение испанских ВДВ. Война Ифни 1957-58 год —
  • КГБ накануне Олимпиады-80. Оружие и задачи —
  • Американская История. Пекотская война. —
  • РККА после Гражданской войны. Оружие и политика —
  • Оружие охоты и войны —
  • Венгерское восстание и "Антисоветский выпад поэта Долматовского" —
  • Экспериментальное оружие на вооружении от инквизиции до европейских разведок 19 века —
  • Вьетконг. С-75 и китайские друзья. —
  • Леворадикальные группировки. Оружие и Люди —
  • Война во Вьетнаме. Преддверие Камбоджийской кампании 1970 года —
  • Война во Вьетнаме. «Дeбилы Макнамары» в бою и что такое «Купить ферму» —
  • Начальный период Второй мировой войны. Армии Дании, Бельгии и Голландии.
  • Первый опыт британских коммандос. Операция "ПОСОЛ"
  • Вторая мировая. Армия Гренландии против Кригсмарине
  • Советско-Британское вторжение в Иран 1941 года. Операция "СОГЛАСИЕ"
  • Первая битва холодной войны. Война во французском Индокитае.
  • Румыния во Второй мировой войне
  • Вторая мировая. Сражающаяся Франция против французского государства.
  • Армия обороны Израиля Становление и сегодняшний день
  • "Лесные братья" и другие повстанческие армии Европы 1944-1957 года
  • "Зелёная армия" батьки Махно и ее вооружение
  • Забытые факты из истории взаимоотношений СССР и Чили
  • 1950-е гг. Экспорт оружия из США в Латиноамериканские страны
  • Оружие воздухоплавателей первой мировой войны
  • Финское видение автомата Калашникова
  • Аркебузы
  • Американская история. Бонни и Клайд
  • Пистолет Браунинг, товарищ Ермаков и его белочка.
  • Франко-Тайская война 1940-41 гг.
  • Операция "Полярный медведь"
  • Операция "Меркурий"






  • Джо Аберкромби
    • Трилогия "Море Осколков" (Shattered Sea), известная так же как "Полутрилогия" (Half Trilogy)
      • Полкороля или Полукороль (Half a King; 2014)
      • Полмира (Half the World; 2015)
      • Полвойны (Half a War; 2015)

Историческая реконструкция армянских воинов разных эпох.[1][править]

Интересные личности[править]



Новое время[править]

Новейшее время[править]


Флаги, знамена, эмблемы и символы[править]



  1. Автор: Арман Авакан.
  2. Казнь Рагнара Лодброка.
  3. Фото из эмиграции.
  4. Памятник Давиду Сасунскому в Ереване (скульптор Ерванд Кочар).
  5. Вершина древка знамени украшает навершие (гротик) в виде аквилы.