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Гверильясы (1808 - 1813 гг.)

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Гверильясы (исп. Партизаны) — испанские народные партизаны, действовавшие на Пиренейском полуострове в период французской оккупации Испании.

О гверильясах других периодов, см. основную статью.

Униформа[править]

True Spanish Guerilleros during the Peninsular campaign did not have uniforms. But wore their ordinary clothing which would be in the fashion of their home province, or area of activity. Leaders of guerilla bands were known to have designed and worn some very fancy uniforms for themselves, and it is known that members of these bands did avail themselves of any items of uniform that came to hand. However, a number of Spanish volunteer and local home defence units were uniformed, but detailed information is extremely hard to find. Typical Spanish civilian dress of the period consisted of a short, sleeved, bolero type jacket worn over a sleeveless waistcoat and/or shirt. Around the waist a wide cloth sash. Breeches coming to just below the knee, bare legs or alternatively, soft leather leggings over which was worn the Spanish sandals or Espadrilles. A scarf was often tied around the head (pirate fashion), or the hair was worn in a net and topped by a wide brimmed hat. Tuck a brace of pistols and knife into the waist sash and one has a fairly good representation of a member of a guerilla band. The colour of clothing amongst the peasantry was the brown of the locally made cloth, which also figures predominantly among the troops of all nations that fought in the Peninsular. Two drawings of Spanish Guerilleros in the Collection of Dubois de l'Estang in the Bibliotheque du Musée del‘Armee in Paris resemble the above description except for a few details. A figure entitled 'Guerilla de la Province de Grenade‘ is dressed very much as described above, but has a plume fixed to the left side of the hat. The hair net is decorated with a long tassel. The thighs of the breeches are decorated with trefoils, and soft leather boots are worn in place of the sandals. A cartridge belt and pouch are slung over the left shoulder. The second figure wears a military style bicorne hat with large feather plume. A short cloak is slung around the shoulders. The boots are high but turned over. resembling those of a cavalier. A sword is carried around the waist and would appear to be slung from slings from a waistbelt carried beneath the sash. A blunderbuss would appear to be the only firearm. This figure is entitled ‘Miquelet de Nouvelle-Castille', a Miquelet being a mountain fighter or rifleman.

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Интересные факты[править]

  • Один из отрядов гверильясов, который воевал на юге Испании, возглавлял будущий борец за независимость испанских колоний в Латинской Америке, национальный герой Аргентины, Хосе Сан-Мартин. Иронично, что еще в 1808 г. он воевал за независимость Испании против французских оккупантов, а всего через 5 лет, в 1813 г., возглавил вооруженную борьбу против самой же Испании.

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